Friday, December 30, 2016

Book Review: Fikre T. Jigsa, ‘The True origin of the Oromo and Amhara” (Addis Ababa: 2008 E.C)

Daniel Ayana (Professor)
According to some reports “The True Origin of the Oromo and Amhara, has broken publishing record in Ethiopia, Last summer, it was published three times. The book’s popularity is in the timing, yearning for solidarity, and the topic, connecting the Oromo and Amhara in origin.  In the preface Dr. Fikre declared to overturn the hitherto received historical knowledge about the origin of Oromo and Amhara (p.8). He then introduced his sources: Mariras Aman Balay’s books published in Addis Ababa in recent years. In return Mariras Aman’s books were reportedly based on a new Geez manuscript discovered in an ancient Nubian Church about fifty years ago and subsequently translated into Amharic.  A quick search suggests Mariras Aman is a theology scholar and wrote many  books on the teachings of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church,  in addition to the five books Dr. Fikre used here as his main source. As such Dr. Fikre is a popularizer of Mariras Amans findings: a new Geez manuscript about Oromo and Amhara, some ancient books supposedly written in Suba, s pre-Geez language and alphabet (p.83).
The book is mainly about the Oromo in Ethiopia before the sixteenth century, focusing on a least known Oromo section, known as the Madabay in Geez sources or the Maadillee among the Oromo.  The book also claims that the Oromo and Amhara had one ancestor in the distant past. However, before discussing the merits of Dr. Fikre’s book, the chain of custody of the newly discovered manuscripts, the sources of the stories, should be clearly established and authenticated.  We are told about the unearthing of a Geez manuscript near an ancient Church in Jebel Nuba, Sudan. We are not sure who discovered the document, whether there are copies in Ethiopian monasteries or how the manuscript returned to Ethiopia.  One reads that the Geez manuscript was composed sometimes before 879 E.C, the year, one Sirak Za-Aksum, fled Yodit’s wars with a copy to Egypt and then later donated it to an ancient Nubian Church. The manuscript was allegedly found hidden under a rock surviving church burning. In Dr. Fikre’s book we also read that copies of the manuscript returned to Ethiopia during the Zagwe dynasty. The Emperors Lalibela (r.1185-1225) and Amde-Seyon (r.1314-1344) reportedly distributed copies to the monasteries. Egyptian-born EOC Patriarchs allegedly destroyed most of these copies (p.9). But are there be some more copies of the manuscript?  Alternatively one also reads that the manuscript might have been composed during the reign of the Emperor Iyasu (r.1682-1706) and somehow found its way to Jebel Nuba.  Are there more copies of the manuscript and if so which one is the original and which ones are derivatives? The date of the manuscript’s composition as well as the context of its return to Ethiopia should be established. How did experts in Geez manuscript assess Mariras Aman’s findings? Without establishing this chain of custody issues, the authenticity of the manuscript and its content remains problematic. Until such time, instead of historic source, they remain collection of folk stories containing some critical information. But the stories were woven together creatively.
Dr. Fikre also claims he introduced a new discovery about a past Suba alphabet, which is a combination of Latin and Geez features, and some rare Suba books (p.86). Dr. Fikre reports that the Suba, a section of an ancient Oromo, were massacred, expelled, and their language and books banned. Which monastery or individual collector owns these rare books? Dr. Fikre compared the reported Suba alphabets with Geez, and Latin alphabets (pp. 84-89).  But where is the key converting the unknown ancient Suba alphabets to the known equivalents in Geez and Latin characters? Why did the discovery of the ancient Suba books fail to make any news?
The central idea of the book is that the Oromo and Amhara originated from a common ancestor, Dashat/ Daset, who lived in Gojjam in antiquity (pp.68, 139).  Ironically at the bottom of this idea is the  Oromo belief that “moisture is the source of life.”  This basic environmental principle was twisted to assert that the Oromo emerged from water/Indian Ocean etc. Now the Oromo and Amhara were born on an island in Gojjam. Since sections of the Gujii and Boorana claim their origin back to Gojjam and Raayyaa, there is an overlap on both the Oromo and Amhara claims of origin.
Dr. Fikre weaves stories of Menilek I and Queen of Sheba. For scholars the lady queen and Menilek I belong to legend, not history (T. Tamrat 1972, 249-250). Dr. Fikre wrote that King Magaal, an Oromo, went to Jerusalem to pay homage to the baby Jesus. As a source for Dr. Fikre’s book, I wonder when this piece was first written. I am not interested in its literal truth and the authenticity. The alleged Jerusalem trip should be seen in its symbolism. The idea expressed is the opposite of religious bigotry that is extant in the history of world religions. The ideas are formulaic and aspirational; indicating understanding diversity, universalism, and inclusiveness by religious teachers. Reference to King Magaal’s trip to Jerusalem contradicts the pre-sixteenth century literature that depicts the Karayyuu, Dabassoo, Marsoo, and the Gumuz as the devil incarnate or those burning in hell.
Two points are worth stressing about the mythological genre. Most of the stories coming from ancient Geez manuscripts are wrapped in fables.  However, we can situate the stories in modern geographic boundaries; date them to pre-Aksumite, Aksumite or post-Aksumite times in relation to known historical events of the times. Since pre-historic population movements followed major rivers, their watersheds, and tributaries, placing ancient Oromo-Amhara homeland close to major water sources is plausible. Second, for many readers, Dr. Fikre’s book about Oromo and Amhara’s common ancestor appeals to their own pre-existing confirmation bias. They knew their Oromo lineage; now their ancestors were not immigrants from Asia, Madagascar, Zimbabwe or Kenya.
Oromo presence in the present-day Ethiopia long before the sixteenth century looms large in Dr. Fikre’s stories. Dr. Fikre included, from known historical sources, personalities such as Doori Tulu, brother of the Emperor Lebna Dengil’s queen mother, and his son Bula as the two Bahra Nagashs. Historians have long denied this historical fact to fortify the sixteenth century Oromo entry into Ethiopia and their being nomadic pastoralists. A new historical information is about the Emperor Lebna Dengil’s losing support from the Abba Gadaas of Tulamma on the eve of the Battle of Shimbra Kure in 1529 (p.81). Taddesse Tamrat included the Galaan and Yaayaa residing on Shawanplateau in medieval times (1972, 184).  Abuna Anorewos, one of the medieval saints during the reign of Amde-Seyon, (1314-1344) was born in MatigeMugar, and spoke afaan Oromo. Yet various proposals are suggested to explain his Oromo language ability short of admitting Oromo presence in today’s Tulammaa areas. Dr. Fikre’s sources suggested Tulammaa’s discontent and its political consequence. The existence of these Geez sources is significant in itself.
Another story that has significance for the pre-sixteenth century history of Oromo is the assertion that the Queen of Sheba was an Azabo lady.  There is a reference to the pagans of hagara Azabo and the [Afar] in the hagiography Gadla Marqorewos. In GadlaAron, the daughter of an Azabo king is depicted as a saintly character in paradise.  References to Ethiopis, Median, Melke-Tsedik  etc can be disregarded as a heritage of past uprootedness initiated  with the The Glory of the Kings. Even in this bookwhere the Ethiopian Empire extended from Egypt to India, the mythical Menilek I allegedly waged the first war against, among others “the… cities of… Gerra and districts of Hadiya… for enmity had existed between them from olden times.”  (Budge, The Queen of Sheba, p. 165). Place names mentioned are significant.
On the Suba people or the Madabay, the Geez reference is interesting. These were a group of ancient Oromo named variously as the Madibe, Madille, Matite by ancient Greco-Roman sources, coastal east African and Boorana arga dhageettii. (On Arga Dhageetti see Chikage Oba-Smidt, The Oral Chronicle of the Boorana… 2015).  Greco-Roman sources documented the Matite presence in northeast Africa about the first century A.D. East African sources referred to the Madille/Matite as the giants: builders of megalithic structures, water wells, and subterranean structures. Boorana sources remember the Maadillee as master builders. From about 376-736 C. E (nine cycles of 40 years) the Abbaa Muudaas from the Maadillee served as guardians of pan-Oromo culture and unity. (Gemechu & Kassam 2005).  (Chronology extrapolated from Gadaapower transfer cycles of 8 years and 40 years; and 9×40= 360 years and Oba-Smidt’s date for Boorana Gadaa renewal date of c 1456).  Dr. Fikre’s sources referred to the mythical Menilek I massacring and expelling the Madabay/Maadillee to east Africa and identified them with the Aba Suba in Kenya and Uganda today. The Maadille probably formed part of the Oromo speaking Bantu groups in east Africa before the fifteenth century Orma arrival. Their presence is marked by Oromo technical terms about marriage, iron works etc. The MadibeMadabay/Matite/Maadillee existed historically; but the Suba alphabet and their rare books have yet to be authenticated.
Finally four remarks to conclude this review. First, Dr. Fikre suggests Wikipedia as a reliable source of information. Wikipedia is not a dependable source; it is a nest for half-truths, quarter-truths, and sometimes an outright misinformation. Second, Dr. Fikre’s sources suggest the presence of Geez documents to elaborate more on Oromo-Amhara relatedness and long relationship. Three, the Oromo were known in primary sources with their sectional names such as GalaanMarsooAzaboWarra Qaallu,Arsii, Karayyuu etc, and researchers should look for such names not a later name. This is a universal historical truth. Abba Bahriy’s assigned a pejorative nomenclature relatively recently for political purpose. Fourth, for those who disregard Dr. Mohammed Hassen’s latest book, The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom… 1300-1700, and Tabor Wami’s Yewugana Dersatochna Yetarik Ewenatoch, there are two scientific findings about Oromo ancestors from disinterested researchers. First, genetic research traced Oromo ancestors to a group that inhabited the present day region some sixty thousand years ago when few Africans first migrated to all continents. Second, twenty thousand years ago when the global climate changed and Africans gathered in the Nile Valley and then wet Sahara, these Oromo ancestors moved to southern Egypt and left a genetic material there which subsequently spread to Europe. This same gene is also discovered in the Boorana mirroring their return trip. These scientific findings confirmed an ancient Oromo saying about their present homeland: the Waataa are the first, the Oromo the second in the region. The Waataa or Twa /San were the first Africans trekking out of eastern Africa to populate the globe. Dr. Fikre’s Geez sources point us in the right direction suggesting the importance of additional Geez primary sources for the shared heritage in antiquity and for a new history. Although Dr. Fikre does not tell us enough about his sources and their provenance, but the book should not be dismissed out of hand.This book will remain around and probably inspire similar topics.

Thursday, December 29, 2016


Addis Abeba Dec 29/2016 – The federal high court Arada branch has today granted the police additional 28 days to remand and investigate prominent opposition leader, Dr. Merera Gudina, chairman of the Oromo Federalist Congress (OFC).
The police have told the court that they were investigating Dr. Merera for “potential offenses related to terrorism,” indicating that the opposition leader, who the government maintains was only detained under the six-month state of emergency, is now likely facing potential charges of terrorism.
Speaking to the judge, Dr. Merera vehemently denied any terrorism allegations and said that he has spent his life teaching against the ideals of violence and terrorism, according to his lawyers. The hearing this afternoon was conducted in closed court as families, friends, colleagues and diplomats who have come to witness the hearing were all kept out of the court room.
Dr. Merera was detained upon arrival in Addis Abeba after finishing a tour to several European countries for more than three weeks.  During his tour Dr.Merera delivered a speech to members of the European Union Parliament on current political crisis and human rights violations in Ethiopia. Dr. Merera was joined by two other prominent invitees: Dr. Berhanu Nega, leader of the opposition Patriotic Ginbot 7 (G7), which is designated by Ethiopia’s ruling party dominated parliament as a “terrorist organization” and is now actively fighting the regime from the northern part of the country, and athlete Feyisa Lilessa, Olympic silver medalist who gave a significant impetus to a year-long Oromo protest that gripped Ethiopia when he crossed his arms in an X sign at the finishing line.
The government continued to maintain Dr. Merera is detained only for violating a section of the State of Emergency which prohibits contacts with “terrorist organizations”.
In a statement issued released on Dec. 20th, The Ethiopian embassy in Brussels, Belgium, said “Dr Merera Gudina was arrested…for violating directives of the state of emergency.”
“Despite his awareness of these provisions, Dr. Merera Gudina allegedly met and discussed with the leader of a group listed as terrorist in Brussels from 7-9 November 2016. Hence, the arrest of Dr Merera Gudina is not related with the meeting in the European Parliament but the alleged discussion with the leader of a terrorist group. If this meeting is confirmed by the investigation, this would have to be considered as a clear and deliberate violation of the state of emergency.”
According to Ethiopia’s infamous Anti-Terrorism Proclamation of 2009, police investigating potential suspects of terrorism can obtain from a court four months of each 28 days to remand and further investigate suspects.
Arguing for the additional 28 days of remand, the police have told the court that they were translating e-mails, electronic files, other documents and banking details related to Dr. Merera. An internal memo from a private bank which was circulating on social media since yesterday allegedly shows the Bank’s request to all its departments to provide the police all the banking details of Dr. Merera Gudina dating back to one year from Nov. 30 2015 to Nov. 30, 2016.
Today’s request to remand Dr. Merera Gudina is the second since his arrest on Nov. 30th. The next hearing is set for January 26, 2017.

Ethiopia: Prosecutors file terrorism charges against Col. Demeke et al

The 19th bench of the federal high court in Addis Ababa on Tuesday presided over the case of Colonel Demeke Zewdu and et al, who are leaders and members of a committee that spearheads the demands of the people of Wolkait, Tsegede and Telemt.
The defendants lead the demand by the people of north Gondar to reclaim their land that was illegally incorporated into Tigray region when the Tigrayan-led regime took power 25 years ago.
The prosecutor accused the defendants of taking missions from Patriotic Ginbot 7 to destabilize the country. They were also accused of killing and abduction of local officials in Gondar and Tigray.
Colonel Demeke Zewdu was accused of killing 11 regime security forces and injuring 7 police officers.
Five defendants appeared before the court on Tuesday but the Colonel, considered by many as the leader of the uprising and resistance in the Amhara region, remain at the Angereb prison in Gondar. Several attempts by regime security forces to bring him to Addis Ababa failed due to resistance by the people and the Amhara police. Six of the defendants are held at the Central Investigation prison in Addis Ababa, while nine are held in Gondar.
They are also accused of causing damages to property worth over 20 million dollars in Gondar and Gojam.
The court is adjourned to January 12, 2017 as per the request by the prosecutor for further investigations.


Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Ethiopia is on a path to become Africa’s China in more ways than one

Written by Dee Abdella
(OPride) — Ethiopia’s dream to be the next China is becoming true. As Beijing rapidly expands its global footprints, its overseas national interests have to be protected. This is why China is already moving away from its traditional hands-off approach — a policy of non-interference in state’s domestic affairs — to become one of the global influencers of our time.
This paradigm shift is more evident in Africa than anywhere else as China continues to deepen its presence in the continent. A closer examination of China’s bilateral relations with Ethiopia makes point clear.
Prior to 1991, when the incumbent regime in Ethiopia came to power, the two countries did not have much contact but their mutual respect and interaction have grown over the past two decades. But Ethio-Chinese relations had improved remarkably in the last few years.
Ethiopia is a regional hub with several international organizations headquartered in Finfinnee (Addis Ababa). Beijing recognizes the potential of this for access to regional powers and markets, as well as the Ethiopia’s immediate and a seemingly insatiable need for loans and other development aid to bolster its infrastructures. Ethiopia also has a large and growing consumer base that’s already about 100 million strong. In fact, China has been Ethiopia’s largest trading partner. The current Sino-Ethiopia trade volume exceeds $3 billion.
Ethiopia is also relying heavily on Chinese loans to develop its foundations. For example, the Tekeze River Dam in Tigray region, one of Ethiopia’s mega hydroelectric projects and the highest dam on the African Continent, was built by the Chinese. China is also financing new dams being built on the Omo River in southwestern Ethiopia and the Grand Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile River. The Chinese have built most of the roads in Ethiopia, including the Ethio-Djibouti railway project, the telecommunications infrastructure, and the much-celebrated light rail system in Addis Ababa. In fact, according to the Heritage Foundation and American Institute, China’s total investment in Ethiopia in 2016 is over $20 billion.
The economic relationship between China and Ethiopia has become stronger through both Chinese direct investment and trade in Ethiopia since the early 2000s. The sum of Chinese contracts in road construction, electricity and telecommunication sectors show a surge in Chinese foreign direct investment in the last few years. Dozens of Chinese firms are currently engaged in the construction of roads throughout the country, managing nearly 70 percent of the roadwork in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is hoping to become the hub of light manufacturing in Africa and the government plans to establish 6 industrial parks within the next few years. The plan is backed by Chinese entrepreneurs and the Asia Development Bank Member States. The construction of an industrial park is estimated to cost around $500 million per park.  Ethiopia will not benefit as the industrial zones in part because the project is slated to flood the local market with competitive Chinese products, traders and workers. Besides, China’s political economy is based on state-sponsored economic relationship. As such, the investments are not meant to produce sustainable development in Ethiopia rather to secure Beijing’s long-term geopolitical strategy in the Horn of Africa.
Political relationship
Ethio-China relations are not confined to the economic realm. The two countries have been supportive of each other politically as well. For example, in 2007 Ethiopia joined other African countries to stop the UN Human Rights Commission ruling that would have condemned China’s human rights practices. For its part, China never criticizes Ethiopia’s atrocious human rights record or comment publicly on Ethiopia’s internal conflicts. As former U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia, David Shinn, noted in April 2015:
Chinese influence in Ethiopia today is equal to over rivals that of any other country, including the US. The leadership of the ruling EPRDF (Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front) certainly gives the impression that it is more comfortable with the style and leadership of the Communist Part of China (CPC) than with the leadership and ruling parties of Western countries, including the US. The EPRDF and the CPC frequently exchange visits and have even formalized their interaction. While the EPRDF has an on-going relationship with a few Western political parties, it is doubtful they are as close as they are with the CPC…at the political level, China and Ethiopia have been supportive of each other. The Ethiopian Parliament passed a resolution in support of China’s Anti-Secession Law. Ethiopia has joined other African countries in stopping resolutions in the UN Human right Commission that censor China’s human rights practices. Former prime minster [sic] Meles Zenawi stated emphatically that Tibet is internal affair and outsider have no right to interfere.
Nevertheless, it appears that China recognizes the strategic importance of its relationship with the Ethiopian government regardless of the unpredictable economic realities in both countries. Both see each other as comrades in arms who benefited more from bilateral agreements and preferential relations.
Military relationship
China has also been active on Africa’s regional security scene. In 2008, Beijing was part of the global anti-piracy effort in Somalia. It has also contributed over $100 million aid to the African Union (AU) to bolster its combat capacity and peacekeeping missions. In addition, China’s 2014 decision to deploy its military in South Sudan shows Beijing’s growing, direct involvement in Horn of Africa.
China recently completed a naval base in Djibouti to host a few thousand Chinese troops. This suggests China is in full force to challenge the U.S. military positioning in the Horn of Africa. It is also the clearest indication of China’s departure from its traditional hands-off approach. As U.S. Ambassador to Djibouti, Tom Kelly, noted recently, China’s marine base in close proximity to United States’ Camp Lemonnier poses a clear concern for U.S. national security interests. Djibouti is vital Washington’s fight against terrorism in Africa and around the globe. The US uses Camp Lemonnier for its anti-terrorism operation across Africa, including the U.S. fight against Al-Shabab in Somalia, and a similar operation in Yemen against the Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). That mission involves controlling the Red Sea and Suez Canal, one of the world’s busiest shipping routes. It remains to be seen how China’s presence alters the patrolling of these vital crossings.
China and Ethiopia have also increased their military cooperation since Chinese Premier LI Keqiang visited Addis Ababa in May 2014. China has a resident military attaché in Ethiopia and is the main provider of light arms and armored vehicles for the country. To be clear, China is not yet directly influencing Ethiopian military. China is propping up the regime in Addis for the long game — its motivations are diplomatic, strategic and ideological.
As such, at least for now, the Chinese appear far more interested in economic gains and in building Beijing’s influence and soft power across the continent.  Encouraged by Beijing’s huge financial assistances and political support, Ethiopia has become increasingly bellicose and autocratic, curtailing free speech and assembly rights and increasing arbitrary arrests of the opposition’s leaders, as well as the use of torture.
Since November 2015, Ethiopia has been rocked by widespread and popular Oromo protests. The protests erupted over fears by Oromo people and activists that the Addis Ababa and its surrounding Oromia Special Zone integrated development master plan will illegally displace millions of Oromo farmers from their ancestral lands and eventually cleanse the Oromo culture and identity from the affected areas. The plan was a continuation of the government’s land grab policies that have already displaced more 200,000 Oromo farmers and their families for the development of industrial zones.
China has truly been crucial to the Ethiopian regime’s survival. Ethiopia sees Beijing as a substitute to the Western countries and their aid conditionality. There are several similarities to China of the 1980s’ in the Ethiopia of 2016. Ethiopia daily violates the political and civil rights of its citizens by denying them the basic freedoms of speech, association and assembly. Ethiopia’s State of emergency and draconian rules decreed in October 2016, mainly to suppress any dissent voices in the country can be related to the Cultural Revolution in China and its aftermath into the early 1980s. Ethiopia is on the path that China blazed 30 years ago. Foreign observers and the Ethiopia regime have zoomed on the economic side of things. But, beneath the headlines, Ethiopia’s journey toward becoming Africa’s China is manifesting itself in more ways than one.

Egyptian official calls on Addis Ababa to stop accusing Cairo of supporting Ethiopian opposition

An Egyptian Foreign Ministry official called on Addis Ababa to stop what Cairo believes to be the provocation of crises between the two countries against the backdrop of Ethiopian accusations in October  that Cairo supports the anti-government Oromo ethnic group.

The two countries have been at loggerheads since Ethiopia started to construct the Grand Ethipian Renaissance Ethiopian Dam, which Egypt fears could reduce its share of Nile water.

“Addis Ababa knows well that Egypt has nothing to do with internal events in Ethiopia, but its attempts to involve Egypt’s name in the internal events it is going through will not be of use,” the Egyptian official told the UAE-based media outlet “24”.

“[Egyptian] relations with Ethiopia – no matter how they witness tensions – are historic relations … and cannot be ignored,” he added.

The Egyptian official denied allegations made by Ethiopian Foreign Minister Workenh Gebeyehu on Monday that Cairo supports the Oromo opposition group. He also said that “accusations” made by Addis Ababa “harm” the bilateral relations, adding that such relations improved under Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.

“Ethiopia has no evidence on Egypt’s involvement in such activity, and Ethiopian refugees in Egypt, like all refugees, respect the laws that regulate their residence, which ban political activities,” he added.

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Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Ethiopia: Four feared dead in Gondar prison standoff

Photo: Colonel Demeke 

Three police officers and a prisoner have reportedly been killed in a shootout between the federal police and prison police in a dispute to take custody of Colonel Demeke Zewdu, the leader of the movement in the Amhara region.
The Amhara region has been hit by anti-government protests since this summer after an uprising ensued the arrest of a committee that spearheads the demands of the people of Wolkait, Tsegede and Telemt. They are demanding to reclaim their land that was illegally incorporated into Tigray region when the Tigrayan-led regime took power 25 years ago.
The Colonel is at the Angereb prison in Gondar since July after he killed two TPLF operatives who came from Tigray to put him under their custody without a court warrant.
The federal police have been trying to take custody of Col. Demeke Zewdu for the last three days but the local police have refused resulting in a shootout between the two forces, according to ESAT’s sources.
Repeated attempts by the federal forces to put him under solitary confinement failed due to prisoners revolt against the move. One prisoner has reportedly been killed over the weekend.
The federal prosecutor in Addis Ababa on Wednesday brought charges against Col Demeke and et al accusing them of terrorism.
The charge accuses the plaintiffs were responsible for the loss of lives and property in the protests in the Amhara region which was sparked by the arrest of members of the committee that spearheads the demand by the people of Wolkait, Tsegede and Telemt.


Thursday, December 15, 2016

Dr Fikru Maru in Hospital and Abebe urgessa sentenced to 15 years

by @abenezer_a

photo: Henrik Montgomery / TT

Dr Fikru maru hordofa  who was sentenced to four years in prison for tax deviation and now  charged with terrorism accused of providing 70000 Ethiopian birrr for the distruction of Qilinto Prison. According to Ethiopian human right project, Fikru Maru  has been tortured and his health condition has deteriorated. The court alleges that an estimated 15 million birr worth of property was destroyed and 23 prisoners were killed. Research of Ethiopian human right project  shows that a total of 64 prisoners died, 23 were dead due to the fire and 45 were shot. 

photo: Addis standard
Court declined closed hearing request of the public prosecutor, 19 witness  of the public prosecutor couldn't be found by their address. No one has wittiness-ed thus far against Bekele Gerba Deputy chairman of oromo Federalist congress who is the 4th defendant under the file of Gurmesa ayano. The hearing has been adjourned for  December 27, 2016.

photo:Ze habesha
Human right activist Yonathan Tesfaye who was arrested accused of violating article 6 of the anti-terrorism law Listed prominent politicians  who are in custody as defense witness . Among the witness is the veteran Journalist Eskinder nega  sentenced to 18 years, Bekele Gerba, blogger Befeqadu hailu , Dr Yacob HailemariaM. From his family side, He has listed his father and sister. Eskinder Nega requested the court to change the date as he didnt get a court court summons  paper beforhand to be well prepared for testifying. The hearing  has been adjourned   for December 17/18

Abebe  Urgessa who was arrested following  the first round of #OromoProtest senteced to 15 years, he was accused of  throwing grenade which resulted in death of 1 and Injury of 40 people. Abebe Urgessa among the 38 individuals accused burning Qilinto Prison. Megerssa Worku, Adugna Kesso, Bilisuma Demena , Teshale Bekele,  Lenjesa Alemayehu have been set to walk free.

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

ከ 3 አመታት በላይ በፍትህ እጦት የሚገኙት በነ አህመድ እንድሪስ መዝገብ የተጠቀሱ 13 ንፁሃን ወጣቶች በልደታው ከፍተኛው ፍርድ ቤት 19ኛ ወንጀል ችሎት ለፍርድ ውሳኔ መቅረባቸው ታወቀ


ከ 3 አመታት በላይ በፍትህ እጦት የሚገኙት በነ አህመድ እንድሪስ መዝገብ የተጠቀሱ 13 ንፁሃን ወጣቶች በልደታው ከፍተኛው ፍርድ ቤት 19ኛ ወንጀል ችሎት ለፍርድ ውሳኔ መቅረባቸው ታወቀ

✔በዚህ መዝገብ ወጣት ኡመር ሃሰን ከሌሎች ወጣቶች ጋር የቂሊጦ ማረሚያ ቤት ያቃጠልነው እኛ ነን ብላቹህ እመኑ በማለት ተደብድበው ሌላ ክስ እንደተመሰረበት ይታወቃል

✔ከቃሊቲ ማረሚያ ቤት የመጡት መከላከያ ምስክሮች የድምፅ ቅጂ ስለጠፋ እና የ14ኛ ተከሳሽ መከላከያ ምስክር ስለጠፋ ውሳኔውን አልጨረስነውም በማለት ለታህሳስ 27 ለመጨረሻ ፍርድ ውሳኔ ተቀጠሩ

ቢቢኤን ታህሳስ 5/2008

በነ አህመድ እንድሪስ የክስ መዝገብ የተካተቱት 13 የደሴ ንፁሃን ወጣቶች በፀረ ሽብር ህጉ 652/2001 አንቀጵ 6/2 በመጥቀስ ሃይማኖታዊ መንግስት ልትመሰረቱ ነበር፣2004 አየ አከባቢው ሲካሄድ የነበረውን የአንድነት እና የሰደቃ ፕሮግራሞችን ተሳትፋቹሃል፣መንግስት በእስልምና ሃይማኖት ጣልቃ ገብቱዋል ብላቹሃል እንዲሁም መንግስት ደህንነቶች በጥይት የገደሏቸውን ሼህ ኑር ይማምን ገድላቹሃል በማለት በሃሰት መክሰሱ የሚታወቅ ሲሆን አቃቢ ህጉ ክሱን ያስረዱልኛል ያላቸውን ምስክሮች በማስደመጥ በደህንነት ሚመራው ፍርድ ቤት በወቅቱ የአቃቢ ህግ መሰረተ ቢስ ክስ እና ማስረጃዎች በመቀበል ተከላከሉ ሚል ብይን ከሰጠ ቡሃላ ንፁሃን ወጣቶችም በቅርቡ ከእስር የተፈቱትን የህዝበ ሙስሊሙ መፍትሄ አፈላላጊ ኮሚቴ ሰብሳቢ ኡስታዝ አቡበክር አህመድ፣ኡስታዝ ካሚል ሸምሱ፣የአዳማው ወጣት አብዱአዚዝ ጀማል እንዲሁም በእስር ሚገኙትን የታሪካችን ተራኪ ኡስታዝ አህመዲን ጀበል እና የኮሚቴው ፀሃፊ አህመድ ሙስጠፋ ጨምሮ 90 የሃል የመከላከያ ምስክሮችን እና ማስረጃዎችን በማቅረብ ንፅህናቸውን በማቅረብ የተከላከሉ ሲሆን ጉዳያቸው ለ3 አመታት ያክል እየተመላለሱ ይገኛሉ እንደሚታወቀው ከነዚሁ ወጣቶች ጋር ለተከሳሾች የገንዘብ ድጋፍ አድርገሃል ተብሎ በሃሰት ተከሶ በጥር 5/2008 በመርዝ መርፌ በማረሚያ ቤት የተገደለው 9ኛ ተከሳሽ የነበረው ሙባረክ ይመር ይገኝበት የነበረ ሲሆን በወቅቱ የሙባረክ ክስ ተቋርጦ በአሁን ሰአት 13 ያክል ንፁሃን ተከሳሾች ጉዳያቸውን እየተከታተሉ ይገኛሉ እንደዚሁም በዚህ መዝገብ ወጣት ኡመር ሁሴን እና ሌሎች ወጣቶች የቂሊንጦ ማረሚያ ቤት ያቀጠልነው እኛ ነን ብላቹህ እመኑ በማለት በቶርቸር ካሰቃዩዋቸው ቡሃላ ከሌሎች ወጣቶች ጋር ክስ መመስረቱ ይታወቃል በዛሬው ዕለት ችሎት የቀረቡት ወጣቶች ፍርድ ቤቱ ከቃሊቲ ማረሚያ ቤት መተው ምስክርነት የሰጡት ምሰክሮች የድምፅ ፋይል ስለጠፋ እና የ14ተኛ ተከሳሽ መከላከያ ስለጠፋ መዘረገቡን መርምረን አልጨረስንም በማለት ፍትህ ተፈልጎ ለታህሳስ 27 ለመጨረሻ ፍርድ ውሳኔ ቀጠሮ ሰጥቱዋል በዛሬው ችሎት በቂሊንጦ ማረሚያ ቤት ቃጠሎ ሌላ ክስ የተመሰረተበት ተከሳሽ ኡመር ሀሴን በሸዋሩ ቢት የደረሰበትን ስቃይ ለካንጋሮ ፍርድ ቤት አቤቱታ ሊያቀርብ ሲሞክር ዳኛዎቹ እድል ነፍገውታል

በነ አህመድ እንድሪስ መዝገብ የተጠቀሱት ሙስሊሞች:–
1,አህመድ እንዲሪስ ገበየው
2,አንዋር ኡመር ሰኢድ
3,ሳሊህ መሃመድ አብዱ
4,ሼህ አደም አራጋው አህመ
5,አብዱረህማን እሸቱ መሃመድ
6,ኢብራሂም ሙሄ ኢማም
7,ኡመር ሁሴን አህመድ
8,ይመር ሁሴን ሞላ
9,ሙባረክ ይመር(ረሂመሁላህ በማረሚያ ቤት የተገደለው ጀግና)
10,እስማኤል ሃሰን ይመር
11,ከማል ሁሴን አህመድ
12,አብዱ ሃሰን መሃመድ
13,አህመድ ጀማል ሰኢድ
14,መሃመድ ዩሱፍ መሃመድ ናቸው
በዛሬው ዕለት ቁጥሩ ከፍተኛ ህዝበ ሙስሊም እና ታላላቅ ኡለማዎች በፍርድ ቤት በመገኘት አጋርነታችንን ማሳየታቸው ታውቁዋል


By Amnesty International, Index number: AFR 25/5312/2016
Waves of protests against the government have taken place across various parts of Ethiopia since November 2015. These protests have consistently been quashed by Ethiopian security forces using excessive, sometimes lethal, force, which led to scores of injuries and deaths. The crackdown on protests was accompanied by increasingly severe restrictions on access to information and communications in large parts of the country by cutting off internet access, slowing down connections and blocking social media websites.

View report in English

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Stop BEDiSA Group’s Land Grab of Tana Beles-Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Amhara Professional Union (APU) an organization dedicated to the defense and protection of the ideals and interests of the Amhara of Ethiopia in all sectors has initiated a petition to stop the purchase of the Tana Beles project by a Turkish corporation called BEDiSA Group.

The TPLF regime has been selling fertile Amhara land in the name of development while at the same time committing genocide of the Amhara people, forced eviction of farmers without adequate compensation, and imprisonment. The Amhara people will not benefit from the sale of Tana Beles, but instead the profits from these ventures go to the pocketbooks of TPLF leadership. Therefore, the Amhara Professional Union (APU) is suggesting to the BEDiSA Group to hold off all of its investment in Tana Beles until a government that represents the concerns and aspirations of the Amhara people is installed. The BEDiSA Group can invest in the Amhara region once a government that represents the wishes and aspirations of the Amhara people is in place and by then the hospitable Amhara people will welcome the group to invest in the region that will surely boost the investment’s value, safety, and profitability.
Thus, we are asking all Ethiopians and friends to please click on the link below, read the APU statement, and sign the petition. This petition will be delivered to Binai Boran, Chairperson of the BEDiSA Group.

Ethiopia: Former Prime Minister Tesfaye Dinka passes away

Tesfaye Dinka

ESAT News (December 9, 2016)
Former Ethiopian Prime Minister Tesfaye Dinka passed away on Thursday in Virginia, United States, where he lived in exile after the fall of the military regime.
The 77 year-old former diplomat served his country in a number of capacities. He also worked at the World Bank and other international institutions before his retirement.
Dinka was a graduate of the American University in Lebanon and an alumnus of the Syracuse University in New York.
Dinka, who took over the premiership in 1991, led the negotiating team of the former military government at the London Peace Conference where his government, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, the party now in power in Ethiopia, were negotiating on the fate of Ethiopia after 17 years of civil war.
Dinka wrote a book titled “Ethiopia During the Derg Years: An Inside Account” but unfortunately passed away before the publishing of the book. According to Tsehai Publishers, his book will be released next month.
Dinka is survived by his wife, four children and four grand children.

የመሳይ ከበደና የሬኔ ለፎርት ወግ – ታሪኩ ውብነህ ጌታሁን

ክፍል አንድ
ፕሮፌሰር መሳይ ከበደ
[ማሳስቢያ፡ ይህ በክፍል አንድ የቀረበው ጽሑፍ ለማሰተማር ሳይሆን ለመማማር ታስቦ መሆኑን ለአንባቢ ማሳወቅ እወዳለሁ፤ስለኢትዮጵያ የሚጻፉትን የምችለውን ያህል እከታተላለሁ፤ነገር ግን እጅጉን ያስቸገረኝ ጸሐፊዎች ስለ አሁን አለንበት “ሁኔታ” ሲጽፉ እንደመሰላቸው ብቻ ሳይሆን የአንባቢዎቻቸዉን ችሎታ ከግንዛቤ ሲያሰገቡ መሆኑን  ጽሑፋቸው በሚገባ ያንፅባርቃል፤ለዚህም በመረጃነት የማቀርበው ከላይ የተጠቀሱት ሁለት ሊቃን አሁን ባለው የኢትዮጵያ ጉዳይ ላይ የጻፉትን በመመልከት ነው፤ እንዲት እንደተመለከትኩት በአጭሩ ላስረዳ፤ ከአንድ ወዳጄ ጋር በቅርቡ ታትሞ ስለወጣ መጽሐፍ ስናወራ “ጸሐፊው ዝም ብሎ ነው፤ከዚህም ከዚያም አሰባስቦ መጽሐፍ ጻፍኩይላል” አለኝ፤ መጽሐፉ በሚገባ ስለተጻፈ ሁለት ግዜ አንብቤ ያደነቅሁት ጽሑፍ ነው፤ ስለዚህ ይህንን ወዳጄን መጽሐፉን ማንበቡን ጠየኩት፤መልሱ በጣም የሚያስገርም ነው፤መልሶም “ለምንድነው ከዚህም ከዚያም የተለቃቀመ ጽሑፍ የማነበው” አለኝ፤ እዚህ ላይ ስለመጻሕፋ ውይይት ቆመ፤ ምክናያቱም እኔ እንደገባኝ “ያለማውቅ እንዲት ደፋር እንደሚያደርግ” እና ሊላዉንም እንዲት ደፋር እንደሚያደርግ ስለ አስረዳኝ ነው። ይህ ወዳጄ መጽሐፉን ቢያነበው ኖሮ ተወያይተን እንማማር  ነበር፤ ማጋነን አይሁንብኝምና ይህ ወዳጄ እስክማውቀው ድረስ አንድ መጽሐፍ አንብቦ አያውቅም፤ አንብቦማ ቢሆን መጽሐፍ የሚጻፈው የተለያዩ ጽሁፎቹን አንብቦ ነው፤ የተለቃቀሙት ጽሑፎች ከብዙ መጻሕፍት ሲሁኑማ የጸሐፊው ዕውቀት በዚያው ልክ ክፍ ይላል።  ስለ ጽሑፍ መለቃቀም ታላቁ የኢትዮጵያ ፈላስፋ የጻፈዉን በማስታወስ ነው፤ ፈላስፋው ዘርዓ ያዕቆብ (ንጉሡን አይደለም) ንቧ የምታደርገዉን ተገንዝቦ እንዲህ ይላል፤ “ንቧ የተለያዩትን አበባዎችን ቀስማ ማሩን ታመርታለች፤ ማሩም ጥሩ ማዕዛ የሚስጥ መጠጥ ይሆናል፤የመጠጡም ቅሪት ጧፍ ሆኖ በጨልመ ግዜ ብርሃንን ይሰጣል” ይላል፤ ይህ ፕሮፊሰር መሳይ ከበደን ያስቆጣል፤ምክናያቱም ዘርዓ ያዕቆብን ፈላስፋ ነው ብለው አይቀበሉትም፤ የዘውግ አቀኝቃኝ ስለሆኑ አፍሪቃዌ እንደ አውሮፓውያን ፈላስፋ ይሆናል ብለው ስለሚያምኑ፤ ሆኖም ጽሑፋቸዉን በሚገባ አጥንቺአልሁ፤  የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክና የፖለቲካውን ሥርዓት አዋቂ ስለተባሉት ረኔ ለፎርት ለማወቅ ብዙ ጥረት አድርጌአለህ፤ ነገር ግን ምንም ያገኝሁት ነገር የለም፤ ስለዚህ የምሰጠው አስተያየት ሁለቱ በአደረጉት ውይይት ላይ ብቻ ይሆናል፤ የዚህ ጽሑፍ ዋናው አላማው ከአንባቢ ጋር ለመወያየትና ለመማማር ስለሆነ የጽሑፉን ይዘት ከመረጃ ጋር እንመለከታልን፤ እዚህ ላይ መጠንቀቅ የሚያስፈልገው ውይይታችንን አቅጣጫ እንዳይዝ የሚደረገዉን ጥረት መቛቛም ይኖርብናል፤ እንግዲህ ውይይታችን ረጅም የሆነ “ታሪካዌ ሂደት” ስለሆነ አስፈላጊዉን ግዜ ወስደን መወያየት አስፈላጊ ነው፤ “ከታሪክ የማይማር ውጢቱ ሞት ነው” እንደተባለው ሁሉ እኛም ያለፈዉን ስህተት እንዳንደግም አስፈላጊዉን ጥንቃቄ ማድረግ አልብን፤ አዶልፍ ሒተለርና ዱቼ ሙሶሎኒን መቋቋም ሲገባቸው ዝም ያሉ ሰዎች የደረሰባቸው ሞት ነበር፤ በእነዚህ ሁለት እብዶች ምክናያት 100 ሚሊዮን ሕይወታቸዉን አጥተዋል፤ ወያኒ ትግሪ በላይ ከአልሆነ ኢትዮጵያ የምትባል አገር አይኖርም እያለ እሱን አዝሎ እሽሩሩ ማለት መጨረሻው ሞት ነው፤ይህ ጽሑፍ በብዙ ክፍል ተከፋፍሎ ይቀርባል፤ በመጨረሻም ትንታኔ ይሰጣል፤ አንባቢን ለማዘጋጀት ያህል የምናደርገው ትንታኒ በቀረቡት ጽሑፍ ላይ ይሆናል፤ ለምሳሊ (በግእሊዘኛ content analysis on: “the outgrowth of the success of the ruling party; strong economic growth; the creation of demanding society; distribution of its benefit; Pragmatic leadership; they are obsessed with the wellbeing of Ethiopia; relied on a high economic growth and a drastic change or reform). እነዚህ ከጽሑፋቸው ላይ ቀንጠብ ተደርጎ የተወሰዱ ናቸው፤ የዘር ማጥፋት በከፍተኛ ደረጃ እየተካሀደ፤ የአገር መሪት በጅምላ እየተሽጠ፤የሰው ልጅ ሰብአዌ መብቱ ተገፎ እንደ ሰው የማይታይበት ሁኒታ ተፈጥሮ፤ይደረጋል ተብሎ የማይታሰብ ነገር እየተደረገ ወንበዲዎችና ወንጀለኞችን የሚሻሻሉብትን ዘዴ መፈልግ አጋባብ ያለመሆኑን ተረድተን በአንድ ነት አገራችንን የምናድንበትን መንገድ መከተል ይኖርብናል፤የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝብ አልፎን ሂዷል፤ የጎበዝ አለቃዉን እየምረጠ ነፃነቱን አውጇል ባሁኑ ስዓት ብሒራዌ ሽንጎ የሚመርጥበትን መንገድ ማሳየትና መንግሥቱን እንዲት እንደሚያዋቅር እርዳታ  መስጠት እንጂ ከባሕር ማዶ ሆኖ የግል አስተያየቱን ማስተጋባት ግዚው አልፎቦታል። የሚመጣው መንግሥት በሕዝብ ለሕዝብ ይሆናል። መልካም ንባብ]
እነዚህ ሁለት አንጋፋ ሊቃን ታሪክ ታሪክን ይደግማል የሚባለውን እውን መሆኑን ሊያሰረዱ የተካኑ ምሁራን ይመስላሉ፤ አንዱን በሚገባ አውቃችዋለሁ፤ ፕሮፌሰር መሳይ ከበደ በሙያቸው የዘውግ ፍልስፍና [ethno-philosopher] ሊቃን ናቸው። አቶ ሬኔ ለፎርት [Rene Lefort] ማን እንደሆኑ የሰማሁት ፕሮፌሰር መሳይ ከበደ በአድናቅት የኢትዮጵያን ታሪክ አዋቂና የወቅቱን የአገር አስተዳደር በሚገባ የሚያውቁ ሊቃን መሆናችዉን በጽሑፋቸው ላይ ከአነበብኩ በኃሏ ነው። እንግዲህ ይህ ከተባለ በኃሏ የራሴን ሙያ በመጠኑ ማሳወቅ ግዲታ ነው፤የታሪክና የአስተዳደር ሥነ ሥርዓት ተማሪ ነኝ። ምንም እንኳ የተጠቀሱትን ትምህርት ጨርሼ በአጠናቅቅም መማሬን አላቆምኩም፤ አሁንም እየተማርኩ ነው፤ የነዚህ ትምህርት ክፍል ሰፌ ስለሆነና ግዜዉን እየጠበቀ ስለሚለዋወጥ ማሊቂያ የለዉም። ታሪክም የፖለቲካ ሥርዓትም “ሁኒታ” ይለዉጣችዋል፤ መደበኛ ወይም አይነተኛ አቋም የላቸዉም። የሁኒታ ተገዥ ትዕይንት ናቸው። “ሁኒታ” ይፈጠራችዋል ደግሞም “ሁኒታ” መልሶ ያጠፋችዋል። ይህንን እንደመግቢያ ከአልኩ በኃሏ ወደ እርዕስቱ እገባለህ።
በመጀመረያ ከላይ የተጠቀሰው አርዕስት የተመረጠበት ምክንያት የእነዚህ ሁለት ሊቃን በኢትዮ-ሚዲያ [ethiomedaia-11/26/16 and 12/5/16] በአደረጉት ውይይት ላይ የተመሰረተ ነው። ውይይታቸው ጥሩ ነው፤ከዘያም በላይ ደገሞ የሚያሳየው መከባበርን ነው፤ከዚያም አልፎ  አንዱ የሊላዉን ዕውቀት ታላቅና ለወደፊቷ ኢትዮጵያ ለሚያደርጉት አስተዋጽኦ ከፍተኛ መሆኑን ነው፤ ይህንን መልካም አስተያየት  ማንም አይቃወምም፤ ለአንድ አገር በጎ መመኞት ያስመሰግናል፤ይህንን በጎ አስተሳሰባቸወን እያመሰገንኩ ውይይታቸው የኢትዮጵያ ታሪክ አይደለም፤ አሁን ከአለውም የፖለቲካ ሥርዓት ጋር ምንም ግንኙነት የለውም፤ ስለዘህ ከላይ የተጠቀሰው እርዕስት “የመሳይ ከበደና የሬኔ ለፎርት ወግ” መባሉ ትክክል መሆኑን ለአንባቢ ማስረዳት ግዲታ ነው። በይበልጥ አንባቢ መረዳት ያለበት አሁን  ያለው ሥርዓት ሁለቱ ሊቃን እናዳወጉት ወግ ሳይሆን  ማየት ያለብን ታሪካዌ ሄደቱን ነው። እነሱ እንዳወጉት ወግ የፖለቲካ ሥርዓት ተሽላልሞና ተቀባብቶ ሊሻሻል የሚችል የመንግሥት መዋቅር አይደለም። የሥርዓቱ ታሪክ እንዳወጉት ወግ ሳይሆን ራሱን የቻለ የታሪክ አምድ አለው። ይህንን መላ የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝብ ማወቅ ግዲታ ነው። ከታሪክ አምድ ከመጋባቴ በፊት የኢትዮጵያን ታሪክና የአገሩን የአስተዳደር መዋቅር በሚገባ ያውቃሉ የተባሉት ሊቃን ሬኔ ለፎርት ስለ ፖሮፌሰር መሳይ ከበደ ለሰጡት ምስክርነት አጠር ያለ መረጃ መስጠት አስፈላጊ ነው። ፖረፈሰሩ በአብዮቱ ዘመን አደረጉ ለተባለው መስትዋጽኦ በደርግ ግዜ በቀበሌ ሊቀ መንበርነት ማገልገላቸው የሚታወቅ ነው። ነገር ግን በኢትዮጵያ ሊቃን ዉስጥ ያደረጉት መስተዋጽኦ ቢኖር አንድ ብሒር ሊሎቹን በቅኝ ገዥነት [እሳቸው እንደሚሉት eternal colonization እያሉ መጻፋቸዉን በማስታወስ ነው፤ ይህንን አላልኩም ከአሉ እንደመሻሻል መወሰድ አለበት] ለብዙ ዘመናት አንድ ብሒር ሊሎቹን ብሒረሰቦች ጨቁኗል በማለት ታላቅ መስተዋጽኦ አድርገዋል ከሆነ ትክክል ነው፤ የታሪክ ሊቃኑ ለፎርት ለገዥው አካል ቅርበት አላቸው ስለተባለ የፖሮፌሰሩን የጎሳ/የዘውግ አቅኝቃኝነት ማወደሳቸው መሆኑን አንባቢ መረዳት ይኖርበታል።  ስለዘህ ጉዳይ በመጨረሻ አስተያየት ላይ በሰፊው ይቀርባል። አሁን ለአንባቢ የወያኒን የፖለቲካ ሥርዓት ከየት እንደመጣና ታሪካዌ ሂደቱ እንዲት እንደተመሰረተ አንባቢ ማወቅ ግዲታ ነው፤ ከዚያም አልፎ እኛ ኢትዮጵያውያን እንደ ኢትዮጵያዉነታችን የራሳችንን ታሪክ ባለቢት ሆነን ችግራችንን እንድንፈታ በማሳብ በተረጋጋ መንፈስ መወያያት ይኖርብናል። አገራችን ላይ ያለው ችግር በሁለት ሊቃን ወግ ሊፈታ አይችልም፤ ደግሞም እነሱ እንደሚሉት በቀላሉ ሊጠገን የሚችል ሥርዓት አይደለም፤ ይህንንም በአጭሩ ለማስረዳት እሞክራለህ። ይህ ከተባለ በኃላ የአሁኑ ሥርዓት ከየት እንደመጣ እንዴትስ እንደተጀመረ ማሳወቁ ምስቅልቅሉ የወጣዉን የኢትዮጵያን ፖለቲካ ሥርዓትና ታሪካዌ ሂደቱን ማወቁ ለአስተሳሰባችን አቅጣጫ ይሰጣል ብዮ እገምታለሁ። ይህንን ሰፋ ያለ ታሪካዌ ሂደት በቅጡ ይመልከቱት።
የአፍሪቃና የአውሮፓው አህጉር ግንኙነት የጀመረው በ1498 አካባቢ በፖርቲጌስ [Portuuese] መንግሥት በተላከው ቫስኮ ዳጋማ [Vasco da Gama] በሚባለው መርከበኛ መሪነት ነበር፤ መርከበኛው ከአውሮፓ ተነስቶ ወደ ምስራቅ ኢሲያ ሲሂድ በአጋጣሚ ወደ ደቡብ አፍሪቃ ወደብ ደርሶ እግረ መንገዱን ወደ ምስራቅ አፍሪቃ ወደብ በመሂድ አውሮፓዉያንን ከአፍሪቃና ከሩቅ ምስራቅ ጋር የሚያገናኝዉን የባሕር መንገድ ለመጀመሪያ ጊዜ ከፈተ። ይህም ለአውሮፓያን ንግድ ጥሩ አጋጣሚ ነበር፤ በግዜው የነበረው ንግድ ከአፍሪቃና ከኢስያ ጋር ስለነበር አውሮፓዉያን የዚህ ንግድ ተካፋይ ከመሆን አልፈው አካባቢዉን ለመቆጣጠር ጥሩ አጋጣሚ ስለአገኙ ጎሗ በምትባል የሕንድ ከተማ ላይ ምሽጋቸውን በማመቻቸት በምስራቅ አፍሪቃ በሚገኙት ኪ-ስዋሕሊ ተናጋሪዎችና በአረብ ነጋዴዎች ታላቅ የሆነ የንግድ ቅብብልና ውድድር ጀመሩ። ውድድሩ ከፍ ባለ ሁኔታ ስለተካሂደ ሊላ የአውሮፓ አገሮች አዲስ በተከፈተው ባሕር መስመር መምጣት ጀመሩ። ግን ፖርቱጌስ በተቀዳሚነት የምስራቅ አፍሪቃን ወደብን አልፈው  መሐል በመግባት በወርቅ ማዕድን የታወቀችዉን ሾና የምትባለዉን አገር ከሙታምፓ አገረ ገዥ ጋር ስምምነት በማድረግ የወርቁን ማዕድን ተቆጣጥረዉት ነበር፤ በ1659 ዓ ም የፖርቱጌስ መንግሥት ጠቅላላ አገሩን ለመቆጣጠር አስቦ ከፍተኛ የጥር ኃይል ልኮ ነበር፤ ግን የአገሬው ሕዝብ ከመሬው ጋር በመተባበር አገሩን አልሰጥም ስለ አለ የቅኝ ገዥነቱ ሳይሳካ ቀረ፤ ይህ በዚህ እንዳለ  የፖርቱጌስ ቅኝ ገዥነት በመንግሥት ደረጃ መሆኑ ቀርቶ ዜጎቿን ቀስ በቀስ በማስገባት በዴፕሎማሲ የአገሩን መሬዎች እንዲያግባቡ በማድረግና አንዱን መሪ ከሊላው መሪ በማጋጨት፤ መሳሪያ በማቀበልና ዚጎቿን በአባሪነት በማስተባበር የአገር መሪዎችን እንዲተባበሩ በማድረግ የወደፊቱን የቅኝ ገዥነት ዕቅዳቸዉን ከግቡ ለማድረስ ችለዋል። ምንም እንኳ ቫስኮ ዳጋማ  በደቡብና በምስራቅ አፍሪቃ  የነበረዉን የባሕር መንገድ ለአውሮፓዉያን በመጀምሪያ ቢከፍት የቅኝ ገዥነቱ እድል የደረሰው ለደች ምስራቅ [the Dutch East India Company] የንግድ ድርጅት ነበር፤ ይህ የደች ድርጅት የምስራቅ አፍሪቃን ወደብ አልፎ ወደ ደቡብ አፍሪቃ ወደብ በመድረስ “የወደፊቱ ከተማ ተስፋ በደቡብ አፍሪቃ ወደብ” [the Cape of Good Hope of South Africa] ተብሎ የሚጠራው ወደብ ላይ ምሽጉን አቋቋመ፤ ስለ ስሙ ስያሚ ብዙ አባባል አለ፤ አንደኛው ከሩቅ ምስራቅ ጋር በባሕር ጉዞ ስለአገናኘ የተሰጠው ቅጽል ስም ነው ይላሉ፤እዘህ ላይ የሚደረገው ጥረት አንባቢ የዚህን ታሪካዌ ሂደት በቅደም ተከተል ተከትሎ “ሁኔታ” በመለዋወጥ ያደረገዉን ለዉጥና ያስከተለዉን ጥፋት  ነው። ይህ ከዚህ በላይ የተጻፈው የታሪካዌ ሂደት መቅድም ነው፤ ከዚህ ቀጥሎ የአውሮፓዉያን ቅኝ ገዥነት እንዲት እንደተስፋፋ በቅደም ተከተል ስለሚቀርቡ አንባቢ በትኩረት መገንዘብ ይኖርብርታል።
  1. የደች ኢስት ኢንድያ ንግድ ድርጅት የደቡብ አፍሪቃን ወደብ ከተቆጣጠረ በኋላ ቀስ በቀስ እየገፋ ወደ ማህል አገር ገብተው ሕዝቡንና አገሩን መቆጣጠር ችለዋል፤ የአገሩ ተወላጅ በተቻላቸው መጠን መዋጋተቸዉን ታሪክ ይመሰክራል፤ ነገር ግን አውሮፓዉያኖች ከፍተኛ የጦር መሳሪያ ስለነበራቸው የአገሩን ለም መሪት፤ ክብት፤ ማዕድን በቁጥጥራቸው ስር በማድረግና ከዉጭ ሰራተኞች በማስመጣት የአገሪዉን ሰው በማግለል ኢኮነሚውንና አስተዳደሩን ሙሉ በሙሉ በመቆጣጠር የአገሩ ባለቢት ሆነው ነበር፤ ለዚህም መሆን የበቁት በባብርነት ከሲሎን፤ከሕንድ፤ከኢንዶኒሽያ፤ከማልያ፤ከማዳጋስካር በመጡት ሰራተኞች ኃይል ነበር፤ያለምንም ክፍያ በጉልበታቸው ስለአገለገሉ አውሮፓዉያኖች የአገሩን ሰው ለማሽነፍ አስችሎችዋል፤ሆኖም የዙሉ፤የናታል፤የኮሕ ኮሕይ፤ሕዝብ ለነፃነታቸው ብዙ ታግለው መስዋዕት ሆነዋል፤ የደቡብ አፍሪቃ ትግል መራርና አስከፊ ቢሆንም አውሮፓዉያን የነጭ መንግሥት በማቋቋምና የተለያየ ሕግ በማውጣት አውሮፓውያን ያልሆኑትን ብሒረ ሰቦች በማግለል በአፓራታይድ ሥርዕት [Apartheid System: The Native act of 1913]. ለቡዙ ዘመን ገዝተዋል።
  2. የታሪክ ሂደት የሚመዘነው “ሁኔታዉን” በፈጠረው ኃይል ነው፤ ለምሳሊ ፖርቱጌስ በቫስኮ ዳጋማ መሪነት ደቡብ አፍሪቃ ባይደርስና የሩቅ ምስራቅ የንግድ ግንኙነት ባይሆን ኖሮ ከላይ የተዘረዘሩት ታሪክዌ ሂደት አይከናወ ኑም ነበር? ሊላ ጥሩ ምሳሊ፤ አውሮፓዉያን ንግዳቸው ሰው በግልበቱ ያመረተዉን ምርት ብቻ ቢሆንና የሰው ልጅ በሰዉነቱ የተከበረ ቢሆን ዉጢቱ ምን ይመስል ነበር? ይህንን አንባቢ ተመራምረሕ ድረስበት ማለት አይቻልም፤ስለዚህ እዚህ ላይ ትንሽ ቆይታ አድርገን መወያየቱ አስፈላጊ ነው። በዚህ ሁለተኛው ታሪካዌ ሂደት ላይ የምንመለከተው ፖርቱጌስ በማወቅም ሆነ ባለማውቅ አሁን ለአለንበት ችግር ትልቁን መስተዋጽኦ አድርጓል በማለት እንወያያለን፤ በአፍሪቃ ዉስጥ የፖርቱጌስ ቅኝ ግዛቶች ስድስት ናቸው፤ አንጎላ፤ኬፕ ቨርድ፤ጊኒ ቢሳው፤ሞዛምቢክ፤ሳዎ ቶም፤ኢኳቶሪያል ጊኒ ናቸው፤ እነዚህ ተጠቃለው ሉሶፎን ይባላሉ ቋንቋቸዉ ፖርቱጊስ ስለሆነ። እነዚህን አገሮች በቅኝ ግዛት አስተዳድረው እነሱ የደሩሰብትን ስልጣኒ ለአፍሪቃዉያን ቢያክፍሉ መልካም ነበር፤ ነገር ግን የሰዉን ልጅ መሽጥና መለወጥ ስለጀመሩ ለሰው ልጅ ያተረፈው ዘላለማዌ እሮሮ ነው። ከታሪኩ ቀንጨብ አድርገን ብንመለከተው ይህንን ይመስላል፤ የአስራምስተኛው መቶ ዘመን ሲገባደድ ፖርቱጌስ የአፍሪቃን አህጉር ዙራዌን ዞረው በመጨረሽ ንግዱን ሙሉ በመሉ በቁጥጥራቸው ስር አድርገዉት ነበር፤ ከቅኝ ግዛታቻው የሚያገኙት ጥሬ ሃብት አልበቃ ብሎአቸው ጊኒ አካባቢ በምትገኝው ሳኦ በምትባል ደሲት ላይ የሱካር ማምረቻ ሁዳድ በመስራት ከአካባቢው አፍሪቃውያንን በጠመንጃና በዉስኪ በመለወጥ የነፃ አግልግሎት የሚስጥ ኃይል ከአዘጋጁ በኋላ ወደ አውሮፓ የሚላክ ስኳር ማምረት ጀመሩ፤ይህ የስኳር ምርት በጣም ተፈላጌ እየሆነ ስለመጣ ታላቅ የእስር ቤት በመገንባት ለሽያጭ የሚቀርቡትን አፍሪቃዉያንን ማከማቻ በማደረግ የሰው ልጅ እንደቃ መሽጥና መለወጥ ተጀምሮ ከአንድ መቶ ሚሊዮን በላይ አፍሪቃዉያን ለባርነት ተሽጠዋል፤ ዋልተር ሮድኒ የሚባሉ ጸሐፊ “አውሮፓ እንዲት አፍሪቃን ወደ ኋላ እንዳስቀሯት” በሚል መጽሐፋቸው ላይ እንደጻፉት ቢያንስ ከመቶ ሚሊዮን በላይ አፍሪቃዉያን ከአጠቃላይ አፍሪቃ አገሮች ለባርነት መሽጣቸዉን ከበቂ መረጃ ጋር አቅርበዋል፤ ነገር ግን የአውሮፓ ምሁራን ቁጥሩን እጅግ በማሳነስ ከ 9 እስክ 11 ሚሊዮን ሊደርስ ይችላል በማለት በታሪክ ማህደር ዉስጥ አስቀምጠዋል፤ ይህም ሆነ ያ የሰው ልጅ እንደክብት በሐራጅ የተሽጠበት ዘመን መሆኑን ሊካድ አይችልም። በዚህም ንግድ ተጠቃሚ የነብሩ አገሮች አሚሪካ፤ብራዚል፤ በአጠቃላይ የካሪቢያን ደሲቶች የስኳርና የጥጥ አምራች በመሆን ይታወቃሉ፤ ለአውሮፓ ኢንዱስትሪ መዳበርና ለቲክኖሎጂ ማደግ ትልቁን መስተዋጽኦ ያደረገ ከአፍሪቃ የመጣ የነፃ ጉልበት መሆኑን ታሪክ ሳይዘግበው መቅረቱ እጅግ በጣም አስዛኝ ነው። ይህ አልበቃ ብሎ አውሮፓ አፍሪቃን እንደቅርጫ እንዲት እንደ ከፋፈሏት  በክፍል ሁለት እንመለከታለን።

Liban Wako Defended his statement at London IOLA conference

The inevitable for disintegration of Ethiopia, the cause and Abyssinian unbending arrogance

By Liban Wako Filate

Photo: Siitube
I was making a research to amass facts about the future collapse of Ethiopian empire I came across a statement of last military ruler of Democratic republic of Somalia. I hope quoting a Somali man would more outrage Abyssinians than what I said in London. Abyssinian believe that the people in Ethiopian empire are all breathing on their lung. But they forgot the oppressed are always longing for freedom and their oppression is not eternal. Major General Siyad Barre said the following before he went to war with Ethiopia that brought about the crisis we see in Somalia today. 
“Some of the colonizers do understand and quickly retreat, while some, because they are stupid, continue colonizing others, increasing suffering, deaths, injuries, defeat and humiliation. The people colonized by Abyssinia will be free. Eritrea will be free, and they cannot refuse to let them be free. Western Somalia will be free, and they cannot refuse to grant it freedom. The numerous Oromo will be free because this is history, and no one can prevent the sun shine from reaching us.”
General Mohammed Siyad Barre
President of Democratic Republic of Somalia.
I found it necessary to explain what I said at London IOLA conference: ‘it is only the disintegration of Ethiopia that can give the Oromo people to have PEACE.’ However, many Ethiopians were outraged by this statement without taking into account the realty on the ground in Ethiopia today or its appalling evil colonial practice of oppression against many nations and nationalities in the Empire for many years in the past and not in termination as yet. I feel it is very important on the side of Amhara activists to study the nature of the government of Ethiopian Empire under Amhara-Tigre dominance, in the past and present, its failures before jumping on bandwagon of Neo Fascist EPRDF propaganda that was meant to lure Amhara into anti-Oromo corner to soften its own burden.
I did not say the statement out of lack of civility or unpolished political experience or as some try to diminish its importance claiming it is tendency of extremism. All that was nonsense including leaders of IOLA conference who displayed their opportunistic, cowardice position during ESAT interview. Sad enough to remind the listeners of ESAT the group that was interviewed simply over looked the existence of closed authoritarian regime in Ethiopia throughout its history and its oppressive systems are likely to generate considerable resentments over time or existing resentments, especially if the interest of the vast majority of population believed to be 96% are not served. The individuals who were interviewed from IOLA staff would have had the courage to up hold my listeners position to ovation in favor of my statements. It is sad to find out that there are Oromos who are in the mix in our endeavor for justice while they are not committed to such a noble cause. It a cowardice character to point finger to the masses no matter what.
Secondly I was outraged by unprofessional standard of ESAT to interview street boys instead of directly confronting me. What would have been taken into consideration was my addressees, at London, I was not talking to Abyssinians either since I had no business to talk to them or common agenda that stops me from telling Oromo nation truth as it is. I was talking to Oromo people who are under siege and humiliation. When I talk to Oromo people I do not have to be politically correct or leave them in a state of confusion. They need to know the truth. It is well calculated statement to show my Oromo people the remedy of our sufferings. What led me to say the statement in unambiguous language for all to understand is the realty on the ground. The statement I made is what I believe in for freedom to prevail for all including Amhara. The main reason why my speech also benefit Amhara is I believe injustice against one group is injustice against everyone. Aren’t Amhara being ruled with iron fist of EPRDF now? The idea of breaking Ethiopia into many nation states, is foundation for liberty, peace, economic progress, rule of law, and corner stone for regional stability, and for nations to live together side by side separately or in unison based on the free will of each nation is a necessity without cajoling.
I strongly believe in dismantled Ethiopian Empire which is the only avenue to freedom for all nations, including Amhara which is a new colonial territory of Tigrai nation at present. Ethiopia in which the life, liberty and pursuit of happiness does not exist for Oromo, Sidama, Ogaden,Gambela, Gedeo, even for Amhara since 1991 and other smaller nationalities must not be allowed to exist. There can be no nation that promotes interest of single Ethnic group and can maintain unity while the interest and wellbeing of many is trampled. Those who shed crocodile’s tear for Ethiopian unity must be able to allow each nation to see themselves in what makes all equal citizens of Ethiopia culturally, politically and access to material wellbeing of all has to be made at same level and the opportunity itself must exist. A nation that is always serving the interest of the minority while trampling on the wellbeing and interest of the majority of its “citizens” is eventually preparing its own natural death. Those who manifest domination of Amhara-Tigre culture and political will must abandon their primordial chauvinistic practice and transform their attitude to political modernity allowing culture, political desire of others to have space.
The past Abyssinian policy of marginalization and impositions of religion, culture, Amhara Tigre culture and egotistical ravenous economic practices does not make Ethiopia the country of all people. It simply asserts that some section of the population are colonized.Many suffered Abyssinian slave trade and Gabar systems and while others are colonizers. For many years and until now Ethiopia did not belong to all but few and currently it has degenerated to lowest possible level becoming private property or estate of Tigrai elites and Tigrai people. Thus, those nations that are kept in prison must make every effort to break old Amhara prison walls and the fence of Tigrai neo fascist concentration camp needs to be removed without leaving its vestiges and for nations to assert their freedoms. Just let us think. Why everything of Ethiopia is Amhara-Tigre? Way of dressing, language, religion, history and even the Doro wat is Ethiopian more than a Walayita, Oromo, Somali, or Gedeo man. Is this not true? Why Kochee, boyna, Bordee and Ittiitu are not Ethiopian but Ambasha is? Do you know why? Ambasha is food consumed by the colonizers and Kochee, Bordee, Boyna and Ittiitu are of the colonized. No other reason. Which non Semitic culture is Ethiopian? None. Even Chambalala as entertaining as it is has never been referred to as Ethiopian but remained purely Sidama as marginalized as the people.
The voice of Solomon Wada still call from his grave that colonized people of Walayita must be free. UN Declaration on the granting of Independence to colonial countries clearly indicates that “Aware of the increasing conflicts resulting from the denial of or impediments in the way of the freedom of such peoples which constitute a serious threat to world peace.” Today due to such impediments Ethiopia is going into unforeseen turmoil built through many years of misrule and cruel oppression. It is a natural right of nations to determine their future as they want. It is evident that thousands are daily murdered by Ethiopian state in Amhara, Oromo, Gambela, Ogaden, Sidama and Gedeo regions. As we all know life is a priceless thing if once lost it cannot be retrieved. Thus, such huge sacrifice by the youth, peasants and intellectuals of the Empire is for freedom and just political system that can accommodate all or relieve all from captivities that is centuries old. However, Ethiopia is alien to just political system ever since its inception. And this barrier can only be removed by dismantling the oppressive empire not by re-invigorating the oppressive colonial machine.
What is this prison of nations? I hope I found it very important to go back years and find writings of great scholars of Haile Selassie University now Addis Ababa University. For all of us to know who the Ethiopians are and what are the rest it is good to know what Walelign Mekonnen wrote 47 years ago and a question raised by Mr. Ibsa Gutama in his poem yet awaiting for answer “Ethiopiawiw manew?” The writings of these two great men addressed the pulse of the people in the empire and in particular those kept at bay. Walelign asked “what are the composition of Ethiopian people? I stress on the word people because sociologically speaking at this stage Ethiopia is not really one nation. It is made up of a dozen nationalities with their own language, history, social organization and territorial entity .And what else is a nation? Is it not made of a people with a particular tongue, particular ways of dressing, particular history, particular social and economic organization? Then may I conclude that in Ethiopia there is the Oromo nation, the Tigrai nation, the Amhara nation, the gurage nation, the Wolamo (Walayta) nation, the Adere (Harari) nation, and however you do not like there is Somali nation. This is true picture of Ethiopia.” In fact it is a real picture of Ethiopia in which a few are known across the globe and many are kept in darkness of Abyssinian prison of nations.
Walelign with his noble character, intelligent and even mind has predicted that Ethiopia is heading towards its own demise. He wrote “There is of course the fake Ethiopian nationalism advanced by the ruling class and unwillingly accepted [accepted by non Amhara- Tigre. Italics added] and even propagated by fellow innocent travelers.” I believe it is clear that Ethiopia has never been one nation state. It is a multinational state in which uniquely Amhara Tigre supremacy is maintain in a colonialist mode. The disintegration of Ethiopia is a pain for those who were sucking the blood of the oppressed and it is a joyful relieve to those who were languishing in the stockade of the oppressors. The only option left for the people of the colonies to forge a road towards their own objectives is by walking over the sea of blood and horizon blazed with fire.
There relation between Abyssinians and the people of the colony to whom I referred at my London speech is a colonial relation thus to end colonialism in the world the disintegration of Ethiopia is a historic necessity not the wishful thinking of an individual. The decolonization of the oppressed is the United Nation’s policy clearly reflected in unequivocal term “All people have the right to self-determination; by virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.” Colonialism is the policy and practice of a strong power extending its control territorially over a weaker nation or people. Thus, for an Oromo the survival of Ethiopian Empire is meaningless and those embryonic minded Oromo elements who are trying to democratizing Ethiopia are simply doing work of infantile. As said in Oromo voice against tyranny in its last page “for Oromo there is no Empire to build but one to destroy.” Thus, if Abyssinians could not decipher the meaning of the acronym OLF, for the last forty three years and of KWO today or if they could not understood what it means “for Oromo there is no Empire to build but one to destroy” and walk up after so many years by my short statement “It is only the dismantled Ethiopia that can give peace to Oromo” would not surprise me if it creates an up roar. However, it is very important to depart my readers by providing words from a great Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Here it is: “Did you follow what [General Yehoshafat] Harkabi wrote? Formerly of the Israeli military intelligence service. Remember him? Did you follow what he wrote? He said that it was for the sake of the existence of Israel that we have to accept the right of the Palestinians to have their independent State.” I hope a word for a wise is a wisdom. Think over what Arafat said. Since the oppressed people lost their dignity by force it must be retaken by force. No other way to freedom. Every hill, every street, every school room, every work place must be turned into battle field and colonial Empire must unconditionally made to disintegrate into nation states.
Freedom for all who are denied right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness!!